Smoking

I know it can be incredibly difficult, but there is only one word that can be said in relation to smoking, and that is ‘quit’. There is strong evidence that smoking not only has major negative effects on general health, it also negatively affects both male and female fertility.

Smoking and female fertility:

  • Smokers have higher rates of infertility than non-smokers
  • Smokers take longer to conceive
  • Smokers go through menopause earlier than women who do not smoke
  • In pregnancy, maternal smoking increases the risk of the baby having a low birth weight or a birth defect

Smoking and male fertility:

  • Smoking damages sperm DNA
  • Heavy smoking (over 20 cigarettes per day) at the time of conception increases the risk of the baby developing childhood leukaemia, and shortens the reproductive lifespan any daughters born